Questions and Answers
Preliminary Questions and Concerns Addressed to Carolinas Cement
Where will the plant be located?
The plant will be constructed at the site of the old Ideal Cement Plant off of Holly Shelter Road in Castle Hayne, New Hanover County. This is property that was previously zoned for a cement plant.
How long will it take to build the new plant?
Construction of the new cement plant will take approximately three years; construction will begin when we have received all necessary permits.
How many employees will Carolinas Cement hire?
A work force of approximately 1,000 is required for the construction phase of the plant. When the plant is built and operating, Carolinas Cement will hire approximately 160 full-time employees.
How will these employees be trained?
Carolinas Cement is working closely with the Cape Fear Community College to develop training for our new employees. Plans for this training are still incomplete.
Does Carolinas Cement plan to submit permits at a later date to burn other fuels? With the price of coal on the rise, will you be requesting to burn tires and hazardous waste at a later date?
How does Carolinas Cement plan to store the kiln dust? Buried or in containment bins? Will any be spread on crops and if so, will you be testing the dust to assure the high-mercury dust is not applied for land use?
- Carolinas Cement has no current or future plans for burning hazardous waste.
- Coal is the primary fuel source considered at this time. Petcoke, a common fuel that is a coal-like residual from the petroleum refining process, could also be used.
- Carolinas Cement is investigating use of biomass and recycled tires at our existing facilities, but these options are not included in the initial permit for this facility. If a decision is ever made to burn something else, a public process
would be followed.
What is the expected size of this plant? How much cement per day will you produce? What about emissions?
- One of the benefits of modern cement plant designs and operations is that waste kiln dust is not generated, and for the Castle Hayne facility we will be able to recycle all kiln dust back into the process and the final product.
Will you be rinsing off your trucks and the roads around the plant to reduce dust? This is common practice, but where does the run off go?
- We plan to produce up-to 2.4 million tons of cement annually. While the total amount of emissions is directly related to production, the cement plant that Carolinas Cement may build in New Hanover County will incorporate the latest available process and pollution control technology to produce cement in the most energy-efficent manner while limiting emissions.
What type of fuel will be used in the plant?
- Yes, run-off water from rinsing trucks and placing water on roads for dust suppression will be directed to retention ponds. Whenever possible, water will be recycled for use in various applications, such as processing, washing and dust-control.
Will any recycled materials augment the main fuel?
- Primary - Coal / Petcoke
- Secondary / Auxiliary - Fuel Oil and Natural Gas mainly for Start-up
Do you augment your main fuel with recycled materials at your other plants?
- We have no current plans to use recycled materials to augment the main fuel; however, the cement industry is a leader in efficiently and effectively using recycled materials as fuels, which could reduce some emissions including Carbon Dioxide. Any new fuel materials would have to be approved by the regulatory agencies and comply with any new permit requirements.
Have you investigated recycled fuel and/or do you plan or are you using recycled fuel at any of your plants?
- Not at this time, but we hope to incorporate recycled materials in the future.
Will fly ash be incorporated into the cement product?
- We have investigated the possibilities and are interested. In order to utilize any recycled materials as fuels, Carolinas Cement will work closely with State and Federal Permitting Agencies and comply with any current or future permit requirements.
What will be the source of this fly ash?
- Fly Ash is incorporated in the production of the clinker as a component of the raw material fed into the kiln primarily to provide the necessary alumina in the cement composition.
Will fly ash be stored on site?
- We are considering several options.
- It may be possible to work with a local power plant to receive some of our fly ash. However, we are in the preliminary stages of this process and are not sure that this approach will be viable.
Where will your fly ash distribution center be located and what emissions to the environment are to be expected?
- Yes, in an enclosed storage silo or dome with dust suppression mechanism.
How much fuel will be used on a yearly basis and how will the fuel be delivered to the plant?
- Carolinas Cement has no plans currently for a Fly Ash distribution center.
How will the cement product be transported away from the plant?
- Depending on production rates, we anticipate using 150,000 to 280,000 tons of coal per year. All of the coal quantity will be delivered by rail.
Do you plan on any dredging of the Northeast Cape Fear River or Island Creek?
- Transportation plans have not been finalized.
- At this stage, we anticipate rail to be the preferred mode of transportation.
- Truck may be an additional mode.
Do you plan on altering any wetland areas? If so can you describe the proposal?
- We do not plan to dredge.
How will your Castle Hayne plant differ from these plants in fuel type, emissions and production capacity?
- Carolinas Cement is currently working with the Corps of Engineers to identify and quantify the wetlands on the site. As we go through the federal and state permitting process for the wetlands, we will continue to look for opportunities to avoid, minimize and mitigate our wetland impacts.
What are the main types of air and water emissions from your plants in Virginia and Florida and how will these compare to your Castle Hayne plant?
- Both our plants in Virginia (upgraded in 1996 with a maximum production rate of 1.3 million tons per year of clinker) and Florida (upgraded in 2005 with a maximum production rate of 2.2 million tons per year of clinker) utilize coal as their primary fuel, along with some fuel oil and natural gas for kiln start-up. The plant in Castle Hayne may have similar emission points as our existing facilities, but will incorporate the best available process and pollution-control technology to produce cement in the most energy-efficient manner, while limiting emissions to meet the latest EPA requirements.
Where will be the source of your limestone and will this mining effect the existing ground water in any way? How much limestone mining is predicted for the life of the plant?
- The main air emissions from our proposed and current plants are those related to particulate emissions and fuel combustions, which can vary based on the differences in raw materials from plant to plant. The Castle Hayne plant will have similar types of emissions, but the latest regulations will require us to utilize the best available technology to meet current emission limits. The emissions at our plants are monitored using a Continuous Emissions Monitoring System (CEMS) for nitrous oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter (PM) to ensure compliance with permit limits. A similar system will be used for the Castle Hayne facility.
- The quarrying process and water systems vary from plant to plant. In Florida, quarrying is conducted in the wet so there is no discharge from quarrying operations. In Virginia we mine in the dry and operate quarrying dewatering in accordance with a water discharge permit. For process water, we have no direct discharges. In Virginia, storm and process water goes to lined process water ponds and all water is recycled. The only discharge would be in a rare excessive storm event, in which case some water could be discharged in accordance with our permits. In Florida, process water goes to a non discharge retention basin and we are looking for additional ways to recycle water at that facility.
We intend to develop a system at Castle Hayne that is similar to our system in Virginia to recycle as much water as possible.
What are the figures for truck traffic generated by your Virginia and Florida plants? What are your estimates for the truck traffic to be generated by your Castle Hayne plant?
- Please refer to the earlier question. We will have no discharges or impacts to groundwater that would be anticipated impact groundwater quality. Our operations will employ best practices to limit or eliminate water discharges and minimize the potential for spill or releases that could affect groundwater quality.
What economic model was used to produce the benefits, jobs, secondary economic benefits? Who developed the projections that were presented to the New Hanover Board of Commissioners?
- Carolinas Cement is gathering information from existing plants and has commissioned a preliminary traffic study using our existing operations as a basis for modeling the traffic impacts of the Castle Hayne project. The existing Castle Hayne stone quarrying activities are expected to terminate in about the same time that the cement plant will be commissioned. The net effect will likely be a minimal impact to the local road traffic given our projection that the majority of shipments may be on rail.
For additional information on how cement is produced, please go to the Portland Cement Association webpage at www.cement.org
- Carolinas Cement furnished required information through Wilmington Industrial Development, Inc. to Dr. William Hall of UNC-Wilmington Cameron School of Business. Dr. Hall used the IMPLAN system to arrive at the projections.